Disease Resistance in Local Chicken

Title

Local chicken populations (Gallus Gallus): Upgrading natural disease tolerance against Newcastle disease (Avian paramyxovirus 1) through selection and Community Based Management.

Objectives

Two main objectives are targeted:
Upgrading the natural disease tolerance evidences in some selected chicken genotypes of the Western Highland.
Promoting a community based management of the upgraded genotypes. The immediate target group is the rural population of the Western highland of Cameroon (3 900 000 inhabitants representing 9% of the Cameroon population).

Target group

The target group represents the highest human population density of the country (125 inhabitants per km2) as compared to other nine regions. Western highlands are a secure and very peaceful region where previous participatory research uptakes in various fields have been very successful (Hako Touko et al., 2013). Almost every rural household (80% of the population) of this area
keep local chicken and strongly depend on agriculture for their subsistence. As a case study, the Bakou community (about 15 000 farmers on 258km2 of land) will be targeted. A reduction in chicken mortality of about 40% by the third year is expected herein increasing income generated from sales of about the same percentage. Another target group is the scientific community and the chicken industry as Newcastle disease is a global concern.

Methodology

Selecting for resistance or tolerance against the Newcastle disease will be achieved with APMV1 strain cultured in fresh eggs and tested for pathogenecity index according to the standard operating manual recommended (OIE, 2012).
Evaluation of specific and general aptitude to combination will be achieved Fall (2008).
Promotion of a community-based management (CBM) of the selected resistant or tolerant chickens will be done through participatory research uptake with outstanding farmers associations identified from our previous successful story with the Council of Bakou. The CBM will be organized and registered in the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries program for family poultry.
Sequencing of the selected genotypes for accurate identification SNp of interest for selection will be carried out at ILRI BecA hub, Nairobi Kenya.

Innovation

Three main innovations are expected from the project:
A new protocol to achieve selection for Newcastle disease tolerance or resistance
A participatory research uptake involving Scientific investigators, farmers from the target community, Extension services from the Ministry of livestock and a decentralized body represented by the Bakou Council.
New tolerant and/or resistant genotypes identified and selected.

Expected Results

Genotypes of tolerant chicken against Newcastle disease
Survival rate of tolerant genotypes after experimental infections with Newcastle disease virus
Breeding schemes for tolerance against the Newcastle disease
General and specific aptitudes to combination for Newcastle disease tolerance
Community Based Management Scheme of tolerant chickens in the Bakou Area

Potential Development Impact

Improvement of the breeding stock is expected to reduce chicken mortality of about 40% by the fifth year herein increasing income generated from sales of local chicken of about the same percentage.
More farmers are expected to be involved proportionally to the impact of achieved results. Confirmed tolerant genotypes will be distributed in the entire region of the western Highlands (3 900 000 inhabitants representing 9% of the Cameroon population) and latter run in other regions. 3-The CBM will contribute to effective conservation of the genetic diversity of local chickens.

Partners and donors

Catholic University Institute of Buea-Cameroon,
Bakou Council-Cameroon,
International Foundation for Science (IFS), Stokholm-Sweden
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) through Bioscience for eastern and central Africa (BecA), Nairobi-Kenya
Prospective potential partners and donors eventually